The deal was inked during a recent visit to Spain by Chinese President Xi Jinping.
Upon entry into China, Spanish table grapes will have a tariff of 13% and a VAT of 11%, according to industry association FEPEX.
No details have yet emerged on what the export protocol will be or when the first shipments could begin. Chinese authorities typically certify individual exporters and packhouses after granting market access.
FEPEX told Spanish local media La Vanguardia that the signing of the protocol is a "unique opportunity" to diversify the markets.
The Spanish Government highlighted that as China doesn't negotiate more than one fruit at a time, the signing of a new protocol in only two years is unusual due to the complexity involved.
It added that "although China is the world's leading fruit producer, it is also the main consumer, and its imports have been increasing year after year".
The U.K. is Spain's leading grape market, following by Germany and Norway. Murcia is the main exporting region, followed by Valencia.
The other fruits that Spain can export to China are citrus, peaches and plums, with access for the latter two granted in 2016.
China imported 216,000 metric tons (MT) of table grapes during 2017 for a total value of 520 million euros (US$622.8 million). Spain last year exported around 143,550MT of grapes.